Monument Definitions for Land Surveyors

Monument [USPLS]—A physical structure which marks the location of a corner or other survey point. In public-land surveys, the term “corner” is employed to denote a point determined by the surveying process whereas the “monument” is the physical structure erected to mark the corner point upon the Earth’s surface. Even though they are synonymous. the two terms are often used in the same sense.

monument, artificial—A man-made structure (such as an abutment, go or concrete marker, or railroad rails) used to identify the location of survey station or corner.

monument, boundary—An object placed on or near a boundary line preserve and identify the location of the boundary line on the growl Where it is impracticable to establish a monument on or very close t a boundary line, the position of the boundary line on the ground preserved by reference marks. The term “monument” is sometimes u to include both the mark on the boundary line and the reference mar See also monument [USPLS].

monument, judicial—A monument set by order of the court at a boundary corner location determined by the court.

monument, location [USPLS]—Fixed reference points established to supplement the regular public-land survey monuments. Location monuments established in connection with the official patent survey of a mining claim in areas where the subdivision surveys have not been extended or the monumentation is inadequate, and where there is no public-land survey corner within two miles of the mineral claim. The survey of mineral claim is connected to the location monument, which, in turn, connected with an established corner of the public-land surveys, when the surveys are extended over the area. Such monuments were former designated as “mineral monuments.”

monument, natural—Natural monuments are permanent objects that are the work of nature, such as streams, riven, lakes, ponds, trees, ledges and rock outcrops.

monument, physical—An existing feature such as a stone, stake, tree, hill, ocean, river, or lake.

monument, record—An adjoiner property called for in a deed, such as street or particular parcel of land. Frequently, the boundary line of the adjoiner is referred to as the record monument; actually the end property, rather than the line, is the monument. Physical monuments may or may not mark a record monument.

monument, reference [USPLS]—An accessory monument which does occupy the same geographic position as the corner itself, and whose spatial relationship to the corner is recorded and serves to cairn the corner. Used where the site of a corner is such that a permanent monument cannot be established or where the monument would liable to destruction, and bearing trees or a nearby bearing object not available.

Source: NSPS “Definitions of Surveying and Related Terms“, used with permission.

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